GMAT机经助同学们提高阅读

时间:2016-01-19 17:03:47  / 编辑:Archie
   GMAT机经是GMAT考试的一手复习资料,因此寻找GMAT阅读资料的时候就不可避免的找到GMAT阅读机经身上。下面一诺小编与大家一起分享一下GMAT机经阅读

  1、美日企业对比(疑似找到原文及题目)

  本月原始:

  V1

  是日本企业和美国企业的比较的一个阅读,说是管理的差异,日本公司管理层权力比较集中,公司整体效率高;美国公司是培养型的,效率不高。然后日本的工人就只能做技术活,美国工人有想法,但是没法参与决策

  V2 日本公司和美国公司都要实行一个principle,但是这两个国家的公司在implement上体现出了巨大的差别:

  日本:管理高层大多数是技术出身,有很好的学术基础,对product和bussiness(这里也有选项题)都有很好的知识。因此他们在决策的时候倾向于让每一个unit让每一个senior manager参与决策(这里是all important meeting, 有选项)这样做的缺点是决策会议很慢,短期内的efficient不好,但是长期以后,就体现出他的好处。(这里有选项)

  美国:与日本很强烈的对比,他们的决策层没啥学术背景,他们训练人才也是分割出来单独培训某一方面的技能(有选项),所以他们决策倾向于少的参与度,因此diversation比较厉害。但讽刺的是,美国公司一直致力于减少这种d,可却并没有意识到导致它的原因就在自己本身。

  原文及题目:

  According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

  However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

  The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A point out contradictions in a new management system

  B compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

  C identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

  D explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems

  E explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

  正确答案 D

  Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

  A It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

  B It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

  C It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

  D It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

  E It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

  正确答案 C

  According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

  A are primarily interested in increasing profits

  B place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

  C use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

  D are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

  E focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

  正确答案 A

  2、 Total quality management

  本月原始:

  V1

  全面质量管理total quality management,好像是这么翻译吧。好像是一个system,来监督员工,本来这个system是已经被很多企业用了的,但是最近有两个学者做研究发现这种system会让一些好的品质流失。例如发现员工不愿意cooperate了

  3、 Stakeholder model

  本月原始:

  V1

  企业管理理论中,有一种stakeholder model, stakeholder指的是员工等相关的人;一般大家认为stakeholder和social responsibility密切相关。

  但是近来有人指出这种model,有时候也会损害stakeholder的利益

  首先,敌意收购(构筑想到了@宝能@万科)会向shareholder开高价收购股票,声称要提高企业现存的管理问题,等收购到了后很可能会解雇员工;企业为了防止敌意收购,会努力提振股价,方法就是裁员来提高盈利,以期提高自己的股票的市场价格。还有一种情况,就是企业把自己的股票卖给large institution和mutual fund(最后一句是对这种fund的概括)

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