GMAT考试常见语法错误总结

时间:2014-07-03 15:53:15  / 编辑:一诺留学

语法是英国考试当中必不可少的,不管什么英语考试都会涉及到语法。包括一些留学考试。下面小遍针对GMAT考试中常见的语法错误给大家分享一下:

1、一致性问题

代词必须和前面的指代内容保持单复数,性别上的一致 指代对象是单数,单词是单数; 指代对象是复数,代词也是复数。

The Glass House Mountains in Queensland, Australia, were sighted in 1770 by the English navigator Captain James Cook, bv whom they were named supposedlybecause its sheer wet rocks glistened like glass.

① who so named them supposedly because their

② who so named it since supposedly their

答案是A 一个什么样的山(mountain),别人用他命名。。。。这里的it,或者them指代前面的mountains。所以要要复数them,而不能b中单数谓语it

2、指代的逻辑语义

GMAT考试指代内容必须存在,且以名词的形式出现

The park rangers discussed measures to prevent severe wildfires, which would be devastating to it.

这里的park充当的是形容词;所以不能做IT的先行词;应把句子改成The rangers discussed measures to prevent severe wildfires, which would be devastating to the park.

The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart;rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power.

(A) apart, but rather

(B) apart; it is that of

A 正确;B的话, that of没有指代对象

② GMAT入门代词不能指代出现在前面介词短语中的名词

Laos has a land area about the same as Great Britainbut only four million in population, where many are members of hill tribes ensconced in the virtually inaccessible mountain valleys of the north.

③ 同一句话中相同的代词必须指代相同的事物

As a baby emerges from the darkness of the wombwith a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be ratedabout 20/500, orlegally blind if it were an adult withsuch vision.

a. A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind

b. As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision.

A 正确; B的话,两个it并没有一个明确的指代,而且先行词有两个;所以会造成语义指代歧义的可能

④ 因为比较结构比较对象的一致性,有时用that of 指代前文出现的对象

Laos has a land area about the same as Great Britainbut only four million in population, where many are members of hill tribes ensconced in the virtually inaccessible mountain valleys of the north.

a. about the same as Great Britain but only four million in population, where many

b. comparable to that of Great Britain but a population of only four million people, many of whom

B中that of正确;土地和土地比; A中土地和国家比

that或those表明新copy的时候一定前后完全一致(包括单复数),否则需要重复先行词。

EG:Her company is outperforming those of her competitors.错,those与company不一致,应将those替换为companies.

3、指代清晰性:

① 每一个代词都只能有一个清晰的先行词

每一个代词必须清楚指带唯一的一个指代对象

Researchers claim to have developed new Nano papers incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which they allege give them the strength of cast iron.

从逻辑语意上说:they指代 Researchers ; them 指代 Nano Papers

但是从实际语法上来说 they和them可以同时指代Researchers或者Papers

Researchers claim to have developed new nano papers incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which allegedly give these materials the strength of cast iron.

② 按照逻辑意思指代

For the first time in the modern era, non-Hispanic Whites are officially a minority in California, which amounts to a little less than half the population of the state, down from nearly there-quarters only a decade ago.

A. which amounts to a little less than half the population of the state, down from nearly three-quarters only a decade ago

B. amounting to a little less than half the population of the state, down from nearly three-quarters a decade ago

B 正确;A的话就近指代California; 但是amounting这里指的是non-Hispanic white

③ 代词一般指代离其最近的名词,但不能过于近了

EG: In the station house,it is considered taboo it不能指代station house

4、 指代简洁性

① 指代是否有必要 代词出现的平行位置(主谓宾)相同,可视为相同指代、

Unlike human runners, who broke the four-minute mile in 1954 and they consistently recorded faster times ever since, horses in classic races such as the Kentucky Derby have had winning times with little improvement: Secretariat’s world-record-breaking Derby tine of 1:59 2/5, for example, was set in 1973 and remained unsurpassed more than a quarter of a century later.

a. they consistently recorded faster times ever since, horses in classic races such as the Kentucky Derby have had winning times with little improvement

b. have consistently recorded faster times ever since, in those of classic races such as the Kentucky Derby, horses have had winning times with little improvement

B 正确;其中A中的they和前面得who对应 语义重复;

② which和that只能指代物;who和whom可以指代

③ it 作为形式主语必须明确的指不定式短语或that从句,且必须简洁不能冗余

That educators have not anticipated the impact ofmicrocomputer technology can hardly be said that itis their fault: Ah/in Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970.

a. It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology

b. It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology

B正确; A的话,it is 没有指代;而且相比较B,A更加啰嗦

5、指代问题

① THERE 副词 in that place 前面指代必须是介词短语

there如果做代词代指某个地方时,前面一定要提到这个地方

EG At current prices, oil in Antarctica may be worth drilling for, if wells can be dug there and environmental concerns addressed.

THERE指代In Antarctica

② Itself, themselves, one another, each other,

一般表强调其指代的名词;

After the agreement surfaced, the commission dissolved it

After the agreement surfaced, the commission dissolved itself.

相互代词 one another 和 each other用来去暗示之间的相互作用;不能和themselves替换

(W) The guests at the party interacted with themselves.

(R) The guests at the party interacted with one another.

③ Such and Other/Another

以上三个代词一般在后面跟一个概括性的名词指代前面的名词。

After the land-use agreement surfaced, the commission decided to subject any such contracts to debate in the future

④ one:指代具有非定义性,且只能指代单数

指不确定的一个,或者就一个

After walking by the chocolates so many times, Roger finally had to eat one. 巧克力中一个

After walking by the chocolates so many times, Roger finally had to eat them. 前面的巧克力

⑤ do so和 do it

Do so :可以指代整个的动作,包含谓语动词,宾语和修饰语

Q did not eat dinner quickly, but her brotherdoes so.指代eat dinner quickly(so可省略)

Do it : it 必须指代一个确切的名词

Q failed to do the homework, but his brother did it.指代前面的homework.

Quinn did not eat the soup, but her brother ate it.

⑥ It

不定式做主语,通常用it作形式主语

It is futile to resist temptation.? TO RESIST temptation is futile.

that从句做主语,通常用it作形式主语

It gave us encouragement that we scored at all.? THAT we scored at all gave us encouragement.

不定式或that从句做宾语,用it作形式宾语

She made it possible for us to attend the movie.

She made possible our attendance at the movie.

She made our attendance at the movie possible.都对

⑦ 避免代词指代不清的问题

有时最好的办法去解决代词问题的是删除代词。在长句子的时候,代词像 it或者them 不可避免的会产生指代不清的问题。这个时候要么重复先行词,要么找一个相似的同义词替代。

1) After roasting the deer, the hunter extinguished the fire and then searched for a tree to hang it from.. 这里的it 在语义上指代 deer但是在语法也可能会造成指代fire的问题

2) After roasting the deer, the hunter extinguished the fire and then searched for a tree to hang the deer from

3) After roasting the deer, the hunter extinguished the fire and then searched for a tree to hang the meat from (meat 指代 deer)

代词:

12th Edition:101, 113, 124, 132, 1, 7, 23, 47, 91, D42

Verbal Review:71, 72, 74, 85,102, 107,12, 15, 19,29,41,44,49, 53,65,67

2nd Edition:50,68, 70, 80, 98, 105

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